Ruff Bird Profile, Facts, Range, Migration, Breeding, Diet


Ruff bird, scientific name Calidris pugnax, is notable for zoological, unusual court plumage and behavior of the sandpiper’s Old World bird subfamily Calidritini (Family Scolopacidae, order charadiforms). The ruff is a medium-sized wading bird. It has a long neck, a short head, a rather short little droopy bill, and medium-long orange or reddish legs.

The name applies to raff species or may apply only to males. Male rooftop sandpipers come in three variants, each with its own bizarre accompaniment technique thanks to a supergene created 3.8 million years ago. You will find most rough faces are fairly straight-faced warders with long necks and short heads. The birthing birds are pale brown on all sides, with pale brown.

Ruff Bird profile

Ruff (Calidris pugnax) is a medium-sized wading bird that breeds in wetlands and wet grasslands throughout northern Eurasia. This highly vegetable sandpiper emits, and sometimes makes, a great winter shake, which includes southern and western Europe, Africa, South Asia, and Australia. Bird accessories on Amazon.

The ruff is a long-necked, pit-bellied bird. This species shows marked sexual deception; The male is much larger than the wife (reeve) and has a reproductive plumage containing brightly colored head tufts, empty orange facial skin, large collars on the nipples, and ornamental feathers that inspire the English name of this bird. Female and non-reproductive males have gray-brown upperparts and mainly white under-part.

Three individually plumped types of males, a rare variant that mimics a wife, adopt a variety of techniques to get a leaky mating, and feathers of the head and neck are made as part of a wider main court display.

The female has one brood per year and lays four eggs in a well-hidden land nest, disperses the egg, and nourishes the rats, which are mobile immediately after hatching, and larger predators such as mammals and birds, such as foxes, feral cats, and storms, are found in herds of predatory birds. , Corvid and Squa are included.

Ruff birds forage in wet grassland and soft mud, searching for or searching for edible items. It is mainly fed by insects, especially during the breeding season, but it will consume the plant material, including rice and corn, in the winter and in the winter.

Classified as the “minimum concern” in the IUCN Red List criteria, global conservation concerns are relatively low, with Scandinavia and the Ark breeding in large numbers. However, in most regions of Europe, there is agreement on land extraction, increasing fertilizer use, reducing dewy or burnt breeding sites, and over-hunting.


The ruff, a distinctive avian species, presents an intriguing combination of features that set it apart in the avian world. With its small head, medium-length bill, long neck, and a unique gravy boat-like protrusion on its carcass, the ruff has an appearance that catches the eye. It boasts long legs, typically colored in shades of yellow or orange, adding to its visual allure.

In Flight: Grace in the Skies

When the ruff takes to the skies, it showcases a flight style distinct from other birds of similar size. Its wing strokes are deeper and slower, marked by a slender white bar on the wings and a white patch at the tail’s base. Additionally, the ruff exhibits sexual dimorphism, with only a small percentage of males resembling females. Typically, males are larger than females and display a broad breeding plumage. The dimensions of a mature ruff are around 54-60 cm (21-24 inches) in length, with a wingspan of 29-32 cm (11-13 inches), weighing approximately 180 grams (6.3 oz).

A Closer Look at Breeding Plumage

During the reproductive season, which typically spans May to June, males adorn themselves with distinctive features. Their leg skin, bill, and facial patch take on vibrant shades of orange. The head and neck feature an array of ornaments, ranging from black to chestnut or white, accentuating their charm. These ornamental variations, whether bold or subtle, serve as individualistic signatures.

ruff bird

Distinctive Feathers: A Cloak of Complexity

The ruff’s plumage is characterized by a gray-brown hue with a scale-like pattern on the back, often accompanied by black or chestnut feathers. The underparts, conversely, are predominantly white, adorned with wide black markings near the breast region. Initially, the diverse breeding plumage was thought to evolve for clear species recognition in communal breeding environments, although it remains subdued in comparison to other avian species.

Beyond Breeding Season: A Transformation Unfolds

Outside the breeding season, noticeable changes occur. The male’s head and neck ornaments fade, and the skin on their facial patch and legs lightens. The upperparts take on a gray-brown shade, while the underparts feature white and gray mottling with distinct breast and flank patterns.

Meet the Reeve: The Female Counterpart

The female ruff, also known as the “reeve,” measures 22-26 cm (8.7-10.2 inches) in length, with a wingspan of 46-54 cm (18-21 inches) and a weight of approximately 110 grams (3.9 oz). In breeding plumage, their upper feathers are gray-brown with white and gray markings, centered with dark pigmentation. Distinctive black markings adorn their breasts and flanks. In winter, their plumage closely resembles that of males, yet size remains the primary distinguishing factor. Pet accessories on Amazon.

Adolescent Ruffs: The Transition

Young ruffs exhibit plumage similar to adults but with a prominent scale-like pattern, featuring dark centers and a sleek, tight arrangement of upper feathers alongside underparts. Unlike adults, adolescent ruffs undergo a delayed molt, contributing to slower weight gain and fuel reserve depletion during migration flights.

A Closer Look at Molting

Molting plays a pivotal role in the lives of ruffs. An extra molting stage occurs between winter and final summer plumages in both sexes. Male ruffs initially develop winter plumage with striped feathers before transitioning to full-display plumage featuring vibrant ornaments and tufts. Females also acquire a mixture of winter and striped feathers before attaining their summer appearance.

The Evolution of Breeding Plumage

The development of final male breeding plumage involves both winter and striped feather replacement. In contrast, females retain striped feathers and reach their summer appearance without transitioning through the winter plumage stage. The existence of striped plumage may indicate the primary reproductive state for this species, with male ornamental nuptial feathers emerging under the influence of robust sexual selection.

Molting Patterns and Seasons

Adult males and the majority of adult females commence their pre-winter molt before embarking on their southward journey, completing most feather replacements during the winter months. In Kenya, males initiate this process 3-5 weeks before females, typically concluding by December. Female feather replacement typically extends into December and early January.

Adolescent Transition and Plumage

Adolescent ruffs undergo their first post-summer molt from September to November, mirroring the timing and duration of adult molting. During this phase, they don a striking appearance reminiscent of their adult counterparts.

Distribution and Habitat

A white-collared satellite male and a brown-colored regional male appear on each other. Two more men are in the background and one woman is in the foreground. Rough is an immigrant species, breeding in wetlands in the cold regions of northern Eurasia, and spending the northern winter mainly in the tropics of Africa.

Some Siberian breeders travel 30,000 kilometers (19,000 miles) annually to winter destinations in West Africa, with a limited overlap of summer and winter ranges in Western Europe. The broad lowland breeds rough seawater and rough terrain on damp grassland. It avoids the areas badly affected by the barren tundra and severe weather, preferring the Hampi wetlands and delta with shallow water.

Wet zones provide food sources, ksbs and opals can be used for leaks, and dry zones have shade or low scrub nest sites. A Hungarian study found that moderately intensive grazing in the grasslands with multiple cows (2.5 acres) per hectare showed that more nests were built. When not breeding, birds use a wide range of shallow wetlands such as irrigated fields, lake margins mining power, and other floodplains.

Dry grasslands, aquatic mudflats, and beaches are less frequently used. Density can reach 129 people per square kilometer (334 per square mile) but is generally very low.

Ruff Bird Breeding

During the breeding season, males exhibit a gap in the traditional open grass arena. Rough is one of the few leaking species where the display is primarily directed towards males other than wives, and it is in a small percentage of birds where males are recognized and inherited differences in plumage and mating behavior.

There are three male forms: common region males, satellite males with a white neckpiece, and a very rare form of plumbing for females. The behavior and appearance of the individual is fixed in his adult life and is determined by his genes

Regional males, about 5% of the total, are occupied by black or chestnut-colored pigments and small mating areas as a stake. They actively display superior aggression toward female courts and other residential men; The 8-2 regional males each have a region of the lake covering about 1 meter (1.1 yd), usually with empty soil in the middle.

They perform a wide range of displays that include wings, jumps, standing upright, crutches with rough edges, or swelling with rivals. They are usually silent when displaying, although occasionally soft goo-goo-goo may be given.

ruff bird

Nesting and Survival

A carrion crow is harvesting a small food item from the short grass. This species will attack the wolf’s nest for eggs and eggs. The carrion crow will attack the nesting grounds of the eggs and the swamp for the baby. The nest is a shallow soil scrap lined with grass leaves and stalks that are hidden in marsh trees or tall grass up to 400 meters (440 AD) from the leak. Pet accessories on Amazon.

Nesting solitude, although several women may live in the general vicinity of a lake. Eggs are somewhat shiny, marked as green or olive, and have dark spots; These are based on latitude, from mid-March to early June. The common clutch is four eggs, each egg in the size of 5 mm 9 mm (7.7 in by 1.2 in) and weighing 27.5 g (7.7474 oz) of which 5% is the shell. The incubation is by the female alone, and the incubation period is 20-23 days, with an additional 25-28 days to escape.

The bark and chestnut of the pre-eminent rods are at the bottom, lined with black and banned, and perforated with white; They feed themselves on a variety of small invertebrates but are brooded by the girls. Every year a brood is raised.

Roughs often show a pronounced disparity in the number of each sex. A study conducted on Finland teenagers found that only 34% were male and 1% were feeders. It can be seen that females produce a large proportion of males at the egg stage when they are in poor physical condition. When women are in a better position, any bias in the sex ratio is small or absent.


The ruff bird usually feeds using constant walking and annoying actions, selects food items by sight but sinks deeper and sinks its head. In the saline lakes of East Africa, it often swims like foliage and picks up items off the surface. It will be consumed at night as well as during the day. It is thought that Ruff Bird uses both visual and auditory gestures to find the victim.

During feeding, the reef frequently raises its rear feathers, producing a loose point peak at the back; This practice is simply shared by the black-legged goddess.

The ruff bird usually feeds using constant walking and annoying actions, selects food items by sight but sinks deeper and sinks its head. In the saline lakes of East Africa, it often swims like foliage and picks up items off the surface. It will be consumed at night as well as during the day. It is thought that Ruff Bird uses both visual and auditory gestures to find the victim.

During feeding, the reef frequently raises its rear feathers, producing a loose point peak at the back; This practice is simply shared by the black-legged goddess. Just before the emigration, the Ruff bird grows at about 1% of its physical length, much slower than the descent of the bar-tailed deities of Alaska, which is four times grosser than this rate.

This is thought to be because Godbyte cannot use refueling zones to feed on its trans-Pacific flight, while on the other hand, Ruff birds can make regular stops and be able to receive food during migration overland. For the same reason, Ruff does not physically shrink his digestive organs to reduce body weight before being transferred to the opposite of divinity. Bird accessories on Amazon.


Wards breeding in wet grassland include birds such as large gulls, common crows, carrion and hood crows, and the magnificent and Arctic squash; The fox is occasionally taken to the warder and the impact of the cat and stout on the animal is unknown.

Overgrazing nests can increase predation by making them easier to find. In captivity, the leading causes of dog death are stress-related sudden death and twitching wound syndrome.

A Concluding Distinction

Two other bird species occasionally share similarities with the ruff. The lesser yellowlegs, a smaller bird than the female ruff, sports rich orange-buff breasts. However, the ruff distinguishes itself with its longer neck, legs, and rounded head. Additionally, the buff-breasted sandpiper, while resembling a juvenile ruff, can be set apart by its longer bill, more robust physique, and scaly-patterned upper feathers, marking it as a distinct species.

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