Guinea chicken, scientific name Numida meleagris is native to the extra arid areas of the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa, however, are presently present in India, and after chickens and geese, are essentially the most quite a few poultry species there.
Guinea chicken profile
In this article I am going to talk about guinea chicken cross, hybrid, eggs, mix, cross breed, baby, male, white, etc.
They’ve featherless heads and the helmeted varieties are usually domesticated and often stored for decorative
The strains are descended from the helmeted guinea fowl, Numida meleagris. In lots of components of the world, guinea fowls are raised primarily for his or her gamey flesh and eggs.
Guinea fowl has a style much like different game birds and has many dietary qualities that make it a worthwhile addition to the food plan.
The meat of a younger guni fowl is tender and of particularly tremendous flavor, resembling that of untamed recreation.
The meat is lean and wealthy in important fatty acids. Guinea fowls have an excessive yield of 80% after processing with glorious meat to bone ratio. Different individuals raise them for his or her distinctive ornamental value.
Of the three home varieties (the pearl, the white, and the lavender guni fowl), the purplish colored pearl is the most common.
The most important member of the family is the 60 cm vulturine guinea fowl, Acryllium vulturium, present in tropical East Africa.
They’re classified within the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebra, class Aves, order Galliformes, and family Numididae. The Greeks and Romans are reported to be the primary to cultivate guinea fowls.
Guinea chicken Distribution
The guinea fowl is descended from the wild species of Africa. The fowls derive their title from Guinea, a part of the west coast of Africa.
As already talked about guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) are indigenous to Africa, however, they have been delivered to Europe throughout center ages.
In Africa, guineas are hunted as recreation birds; and in England, they’re typically used to stock game preserves.
Guineas have been domesticated for a lot of centuries; historical Greeks and Romans raised them for desk birds. So far, guineas are ubiquitous.
It’s believed that they could be more standard have been it not for his or her harsh and seemingly endless cry, and their slim disposition of the guni fowl.
Guinea chicken Description
They are a social bird. Guinea fowl wish to be in small groups. There are three common varieties: pearl, lavender, and white.
The adults weigh over 1 kg. When about 35 weeks outdated, they begin breeding within the spring with one male to 5 to eight females and are stored for as much as three seasons or more. Average egg manufacturing is 55 to 100 per yr, and every egg weighs 37 to 40 g.
Guinea hens will be crossed with a home cockerel however the offspring are sterile. They don’t seem to be good sitters and a home hen may be used as an alternative or an artificial incubator at 37.2°C.
Keets (chicks) hatch at 26 to 28 days and weigh 24 to 25 g and want artificial heat for as much as 6 weeks. They’re tough to sex except by their name, however, the adult male has a bigger helmet and wattles.
They’re both free-range or housed and managed like meat chickens aside from a more generous floor area of about 900 cm² per hen.
They’re able to eat at 14 weeks with a dressed weight of 800 g to well over 1kg and conversion of feed to realize is about 4:1.
The meat is very lean and breast meat yield is about 25% of live weight. One sensory analysis indicated little or no distinction between hen meat and guinea fowl meat.
Nevertheless, this will rely on the food plan as there are experiences of a ‘gamey’ flavor. Their meat is darker than chicken meat.
Guinea chicken Traits
The traits of a Guinea chicken include: The head and neck are naked, however, there could also be some wattles.
The wattles on a male guinea are much bigger than on the feminine. It’s timid, with a more gregarious behavior than that of the Guinea chicken; matches of panic with crowding collectively of birds, able to inflict heavy losses, are feared. Darkness and the presence of perches reduce the hen’s timidity the place it likes to cover and to stay motionless when afraid.
Consequently, darkened buildings with decreased gentle depth enable giant numbers of guinea fowls to be raised.
The guinea fowl is extraordinarily noisy and can’t be reared nearer to residential homes. Within the wild state, vegetation plays a necessary function in the guinea diet. Guinea fowls may cause injury to crops, particularly to younger vegetation.
Whereas feeding it doesn’t scratch with its claws, however, makes use of its beak for tearing with abrupt head movements, a type of behavior that results in great feed wastage from the feeders, particularly when the mash is used.
The guinea fowl is more resistant to warmth than the hen, and raising it requires a better temperature. Gunie hens withstand transportation higher than hen.
Guinea chicken Housing
Guinea fowl are sometimes left to fend for themselves, however, it’s best to supply shelter to guard them against high winds, rain, chilly, sun, and predators. The shelter could be a purpose-built facility particularly for guineas or a room allocated within the barn.
In the event you confine your Guinea chicken (as you may want to do for meat and/or egg production), you will need to present the bird’s plenty of room (2 to 3 sq. ft. per guinea).
The more room the guineas have, the much less possible they’re to turn into stress. The ground of the pen ought to be covered with absorbent bedding materials similar to wood shavings or chopped hay or straw.
If the litter is stored dry, it may keep in place for a number of months. Guineas prefer to roost, so you will need to present perches.
If the barn is unheated, it’s best if you don’t insulate the shelter or area the place the guineas are kept. Insulation tends to maintain moisture in additional than it retains chilly out, and allowing moisture to build up in a poultry home can result in respiratory problems amongst birds.
If you wish to maintain your gunie hens from wandering in a selected space, you need to maintain them in covered pens.
Guinea chickens are capable of fly at a really early age, they usually turn into sturdy fliers capable of fly 400 to 500 ft. at a time.
Guinea chickens are additionally excellent runners and like to maneuver on foot, together with when escaping from predators.
Under most situations, you shouldn’t confine male guni fowl with chickens if there are roosters in the same flock.
When male guineas are housed with roosters full-time, the guineas will chase the roosters, holding them from meals and water.
In case your flock is allowed to vary freely through the day and is locked up solely at night time, it’s protected to maintain guineas and roosters in the identical barn.
Additionally, it is protected to deal with them collectively in a short-term emergency similar to a blizzard or different bad climate.
In case you are retaining guni fowl for egg production (for hatching or human consumption), it is best to present nest containers.
Nest containers designed for chickens are often acceptable. To scale back the chance of Guinea chicken laying eggs in hidden nests exterior, maintain guinea hens confined to a hen home till midday every day in order that they are going to lay eggs inside.
Guinea chicken Breeding
Guinea chickens begin to lay within the spring (with growing daylight) and proceed to lay for about 6-9 months.
The egg-laying interval will be extended and early fertility improved by utilizing synthetic lighting. Domesticated guinea breeding birds are often allowed free range.
Nevertheless, on some farms, the breeders are stored confined throughout laying interval in homes geared up with wire-floored run porches.
They’re tough to restrict in open yards until their wings are pinioned or one wing is clipped. Of their wild state, guinea fowls mate in pairs.
This tendency prevails also amongst domesticated guineas if males and females within the flock are equal in quantity.
Artificial insemination of breeders is practiced in some nations similar to Australia. The birds are stored in cages with males being individually caged.
Due to the small quantity of semen from guinea males, home roosters (Gallus sp.) are sometimes crossed with guinea hens.
The crossbred will develop as a giant because the fowl parent, whereas retaining the gamey flavor.
Hatchability tends to fluctuate with the strain of rooster used. The offsprings of the cross-referred to as “Guin-hens” are sterile and seem like a turkey cross.
Guinea chicken Egg production
The variety of eggs a guinea hen will lay will depend on her breeding and management. A hen that’s of a great inventory and is carefully managed could lay 100 or more eggs a yr.
Typically, breeders produce nicely for two to three years; typically they’re stored so long as Four to five years in small flocks.
In such flocks, hens often lay about 30 eggs after which go broody. Selection of breeders for egg and meat manufacturing traits, as practiced with chickens, would possibly end in appreciable enchancment.
Guinea fowl can start to put as early as 16-17 weeks. In tropical Africa, laying solely happens through the wet season and the few weeks that follow.
A clutch measurement of 12 to 15 eggs is common. Guinea fowl egg is smaller than that of hens, and on common weighs 40 g, and has very exhausting shells that are tough to check for fertility by candling.
The hardness of the guni fowl eggshell could trigger issues with synthetic incubation. The incubation interval is 26 to 28 days.
The typical weight of a keet at one day old is 24.62 g whereas a dwell weight of 1.48 kg is achieved at 16 weeks of age. Within the temperate local weather laying interval for guinea fowls is 40 weeks.
Caged guinea hens may lay 170 – 180 eggs each year, of which 150 are matched to incubate to provide 110 keets. A hen reared on the soil lays 70 to 100 eggs each year, which may produce 40 to 60 keets.
Guinea chicken Nutrition and diet
Within the wild, guinea fowl eat a wide range of meals however most necessary are weed seeds, and waste grain which fall to the bottom after harvesting of crops.
Some widespread guinea fowl food plan consists of fruits, berries, seeds, grass, spiders, bugs, worms, mollusks, and frogs.
Since one of many principal sources of untamed guineas is bugs, guineas have gained a reputation to be used in decreasing insect populations in gardens and across the residence, particularly as a result of not like chickens, they don’t scratch the dust a lot and do little or no injury to the backyard.
Suitably formulated diets (starter, grower, and finisher) for guinea fowl can be found from industrial feed milers.
The starter diet ought to be fed to Four weeks of age, followed by a grower food plan 1 to 10 weeks of age, then the second grower food plan as much as the time that the birds are marketed or till they’re chosen for breeding.
Breeding birds are switched to the breeding food plan roughly 2 weeks earlier than eggs are expected. These diets can be supplemented by range feed.
The starter food plan should include 24% protein and ought to be fed for the primary Four weeks.
Grower ration of 20% protein ought to then be fed till eight weeks of age and a finisher food plan containing 16% protein fed till market age (14-16 weeks).
At this age, they need to have reached an average live weight of two kg. An industrial turkey food plan or a high-power chick starter crumbles are an appropriate food plan for domesticated guinea fowl.
A superb feeding program utilizes a turkey crumble (0-Four or 0-6 weeks), a turkey grower (6-14 weeks), and a turkey breeder food plan from 15 weeks onwards.
A superb industrial turkey feed breeder mash, which includes 22 or 24% protein, ought to be fed to laying guinea hens. Turkey’s diets have the benefit of containing an anti-blackhead drug.
In its lifetime, the guinea fowl consumes a mean of 43 kg of feed, which is 12 kg throughout the rising interval and 31 kg through the laying interval (Say, 1987).
The dietary traits of guinea fowl feed are near these for hen, however, the share of lysine and methionine beneficial for progress and laying feeds are barely larger for guinea fowl.
In intensive rearing situations, feed conversion ratios (FCR) are between 3.1 and three.5 for slaughter at 12 to 13 weeks and imply a dwell weight of 1.2 to 1.3kg.
Guinea chicken Reproduction
Some of the frequent questions on poultry of any species are how to inform males from females.
It is extremely tough to intercourse younger guineas (these 12 to 52 weeks of age) as a result of pullets (younger females) and cockerels (younger males) look precisely identical. When the guineas are older, there are two methods to inform them apart:
Listen to the sounds they make. The hen makes a two-syllable noise that feels like she is saying “buckwheat, buckwheat,” “put-rock, put-rock,” or “qua-track, qua-track.”
These are the ones sounds that the hen makes that the guinea cock (male not less than one yr outdated) doesn’t.
When excited, each of the hens and cocks emit one-syllable cries, however the cock doesn’t emit sounds much like the two-syllable noise of the hens.
The younger keets begin making one-syllable cries at six to eight weeks, however, some females don’t begin calling till a lot later.
Have a look at the scale of the helmet and wattles. The helmet is the protuberance on the highest of the top of a guinea fowl.
The wattles are fleshy appendages that grasp from the perimeters of the top. The helmet and wattles of the male are a lot bigger than these of the feminine.
Guinea fowl meat
Guinea chicken is getting popular worldwide, it usually eaten in parts of Africa (notably Nigeria and Botswana),
India, and North America (notably within the state of Georgia). It’s consumed at Christmas in some components of Central and Northern Europe (notably in Belgium and the UK). Guinea fowl meat is drier and leaner than hen meat and has a gamey flavor.
Guinea chicken has marginally more protein than hen or turkey, roughly half the fats of hen, and slightly less energy per gram. Guinea chicken eggs are substantially richer than hen eggs.
Guinea chicken Diseases
Home guinea fowl haven’t but been absolutely domesticated in order that they have the hardiness of their wild family members.
Due to this fact, they do not endure many pests and illnesses in comparison with absolutely domesticated species similar to chickens and different poultry.
For instance, guineas are extra tolerant of to ND virus than chickens. However, usually, most diseases of chickens have an effect on guinea fowls.
Under smallholder situations grownup birds could also be misplaced as a consequence of poisoning, predators (snakes, dogs, wild cats), preventing, theft, and floods, whereas, in keets mite infestations, malnutrition, chilly and scotching warmth, predation, floods, and bodily accidents are the primary cause of mortality.
Like in family chickens, using ethnoveterinary medicine predominates below smallholder Guinea chicken production.
I hope this article on Guinea chicken was useful to you.
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